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Integumentary System-


By the time keratinocytes reach the stratum spinosum, they have begun to accumulate a significant amount of keratin and have become harder, flatter, and more water resistant.Merkel cells form a disk along the deepest edge of the epidermis where they connect to nerve endings in the dermis to sense light touch..Human skin color is controlled by the interaction of 3 pigments: melanin, carotene, and hemoglobin.Alternatively, the skin also prevents the body from bloating in an hypotonic environment.

It invaginates into the dermis and is attached to the latter, immediately above it, by collagen and elastin fibers.Similarly, extended exposure to water during baths or during swimming, crinkles the skin since water is absorbed and retained in the epidermis..The skin is the body's first line of defense against the threats in the environment that are external to the body..Upon exposure to the sun, in addition to melanin production, the skin also synthesizes vitamin D that contributes to bone health and enhances bone density..


Components of the dermis include:.The epidermis is made of several specialized types of cells.These anucleated cells are resistant to virus attack and are replaced every 15 days, preventing them from becoming a reservoir of infection.The structure of hair can be broken down into 3 major parts: the follicle, root, and shaft.Hemoglobin is another pigment most noticeable in people with little melanin.The most obvious role of the skin is to protect the body from external aggression..Melanin is a pigment that helps protect the skin from harmful ultraviolet solar radiation by giving it a brown hue.

The dermis is much thicker than the epidermis and gives the skin its strength and elasticity.Throughout the dermis there are many free nerve endings that are simply neurons with their dendrites spread throughout the dermis.Vasodilation is the process through which smooth muscle lining the blood vessels in the dermis relax and allow more blood to enter the skin.Exploring Caves Animated guide: Hurricanes .Nails are platesof tightly packed, hard, keratinized epidermal cells.The deeper layer of the dermis, the reticular layer, is the thicker and tougher part of the dermis.


The hair shaft consists of the part of the hair that is found outside of the skin..We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website.Sebaceous glands lubricate and moisturize the skin with an oily secretion which is called sebum and the sebaceous glands also play minor roles in the thermoregulation of the body and its protective role that armors us against the invasion of infections because sebum is acidic and not an environment that germs thrive in..

Adipose also helps to insulate the body by trapping body heat produced by the underlying muscles..Sweat produced by sudoriferous glands delivers water to the surface of the body where it begins to evaporate.The epidermis is the most superficial layer of the skin that covers almost the entire body surface.It consists of multiple layers of terminally differentiated keratinocytes that are also called corneocytes.

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